Oxytocin: The Peptide of Affection
Oxytocin, frequently termed the “affection hormone”. Understand its roles, advantages, and potential uses in this all-encompassing guide.
Have you ever pondered why you experience a surge of warmth and fondness when you embrace a dear one or snuggle a pet? The credit for that goes to a petite peptide known as oxytocin. Often christened the “affection hormone”, oxytocin is instrumental in social bonding, childbirth, and other facets of human connection. Let’s unveil and scrutinize this intriguing peptide.
What is Oxytocin:
Oxytocin is a peptide hormone and neuropeptide that plays a pivotal role in social bonding, sexual reproduction, childbirth, and the period succeeding childbirth. It’s synthesized in the hypothalamus, a segment of the brain that’s a bustling center of hormone production and is discharged into the bloodstream by the pituitary gland.
The Function of Oxytocin in the Body Oxytocin is akin to the maestro of an orchestra, guiding various biological processes to orchestrate a symphony of human connection. It’s discharged in copious amounts during labor, aiding the uterus in contracting and facilitating childbirth. It also stimulates the release of breast milk, making it indispensable for nursing mothers. But that’s not the end of the story – oxytocin is also released during activities like hugging, touching, and social bonding, fostering feelings of trust and affection.
Oxytocin is directly related to how we create Social Bonds. Oxytocin is frequently referred to as the “affection hormone” or “cuddle chemical” due to its role in social bonding. It’s believed to foster feelings of trust, empathy, and bonding in relationships. It’s like an adhesive that helps us stick together, fostering a sense of community and connection.
Potential Therapeutic Applications Research
Current research suggests that Oxytocin might have potential therapeutic applications. Some studies have explored its use in conditions like autism, social anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. However, more research is needed to fully comprehend these potential applications.
Potential Adverse Reactions and Considerations
While oxytocin has many benefits, it’s not devoid of potential side effects. In some instances, synthetic oxytocin used in labor can cause unwanted side effects like abnormal heart rhythms, high blood pressure, and excessive bleeding. It’s important to note that these side effects are associated with the use of synthetic oxytocin in a medical setting and not with the natural oxytocin produced by the body.
Users of the peptide must know it’s crucial to approach the use of synthetic oxytocin with caution.
Oxytocin is a captivating peptide that plays a crucial role in many facets of human connection. From cultivating social bonds to facilitating childbirth and nursing, it’s an integral part of our biological makeup. As research continues, who knows what other secrets this remarkable peptide might unveil?
Aero is a peptides researcher based in New Orleans. With years of experience in the field, Aero has developed a deep understanding of peptides and their potential applications. He conducts cutting-edge research on peptides in a private lab, where he is dedicated to advancing the field and exploring new avenues for therapeutic use.
In his free time, Aero enjoys staying up to date on the latest developments in the field of peptides research. He also volunteers with local organizations and is committed to making a positive impact in his community.
Aero holds a degree in biochemistry from a top-tier university and has published numerous articles in leading scientific journals. His expertise has been recognized by his peers, and he has been invited to speak at conferences around the world.
Overall, Aero is a passionate researcher who is committed to advancing the field of peptides and making a difference through his work.
If you are looking to buy peptides online at the most affordable rates and free shipping, you can refer to the “Buy Peptides” section.
What Is Oxytocin?
Oxytocin is best thought of as one protein with two separate natural functions. First, it is a neuropeptide released by the hypothalamus to play important roles in bonding, sexual reproduction, and childbirth. Oxytocin is also a standard blood borne hormone, however, one that is produced by the placenta of pregnant women and that has effects on childbirth, milk production, and bonding with newborns. In men, a small amount of oxytocin is produced in the testes to play a role in mating behavior and pair bonding. Research on oxytocin has revealed it to play roles in: milk ejection/lactation, uterine contraction during childbirth, lowering blood pressure, changing neuron function, social bonding, fear and anxiety, mood, and wound healing.
Interestingly, oxytocin has also been found to be produced in the retina, the adrenal glands, and thymus, and the pancreas. Though oxytocin is generally regarded as a neurophypophysial hormone, this thinking is increasingly being thought of as outdated as the potential effects of the peptide increase to include several different tissues.
Oxytocin in Wound Healing
Oxytocin can modulate inflammation via action on certain inflammatory cytokines. An interesting experiment looking at rates of wound healing in 37 couples found that social interaction that led to higher oxytocin levels increased the rate of wound healing. The higher the oxytocin level, the greater the rate of wound healing. Similar research has found that hostility in interpersonal relationships, particularly among couples, can reduce rates of wound healing by as much as 40%. These couples also show lower levels of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and IL-1beta at the wound site.
Studying Oxytocin in Cardiovascular Risk
Based on its ability to improve rates of wound healing and modulate inflammatory cytokines, researchers speculated that oxytocin may also play a role in protecting the heart and vascular system. The peptide has been found to help lower fat mass, improve glucose tolerance, decrease blood pressure, and relieve anxiety. All of these are important factors in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and thus it is not unreasonable to think that oxytocin might be a useful adjuvant to existing CVD treatment.
There is also good evidence to suggest that atherosclerosis develops, in certain settings, as a result of suppressing expression of the oxytocin receptor. Increasing oxytocin levels in people with reduced receptor density can maintain cardiovascular integrity and, in some cases, can reverse atherosclerosis.
Research in rats suggests that oxytocin infusion directly into the heart during ischemia (e.g. heart attack) can protect cardiomyocytes (heart muscle cells) from death. According to Jankoski et. al., chronic oxytocin treatment can prevent the late-term development of dilated cardiomyopathy and may be useful to precondition cardiac stem cells to aid in “tissue regeneration through direct differentiation, secretion of protective and cardiomyogenic factors, and/or their fusion with injured cardiomyocytes.”
Additional research in mice has shown that oxytocin treatment can reduce heart damage associated with diabetes. In these mice, oxytocin helped to reduce body fat accumulation by 19% and lowered fasting glucose levels of 23%. It appears to have these effects through reductions in insulin resistance. Mice treated with oxytocin in this study have less systolic and diastolic dysfunction than controls, which resulted in decreased cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, fibrosis, and apoptosis.
Oxytocin appears to protect against ischemic injuries in a number of tissues and may not be strictly active in heart tissue. Research in rats with priapism (persistent erection) indicates that oxytocin administration protects against ischemia-reperfusion injury by reducing nitric oxide levels.
Oxytocin likely increases glucose uptake by skeletal by boosting insulin sensitivity, making it of potential use in treating diabetes. Research in mice has also revealed that oxytocin plays important roles in lipid utilization, reducing total body fat mass and rates of dyslipidemia. Deficiencies in oxytocin have been shown to cause obesity even in the setting of normal food intake and exercise activity, suggesting that the peptide plays critical roles in energy homeostasis.
Research in lean and obese mice, interestingly, has shown that oxytocin treatment has no effect on glucose, insulin, and body composition in lean mice. It appears only to affect these parameters in obese mice, suggesting that while the peptide is useful in treating certain aspects of diabetes, it may not be suitable in all settings. It appears that oxytocin has different effects in diabetes than it does in the absence of the disease. In a study of patients with diabetes, intranasal oxytocin reduce glucose and insulin levels and produced a 9 kg weight loss over the eight weeks of the trial. According to Barengolts, “circulating oxytocin is lower in type 2 diabetes versus normoglycemic subjects and negatively correlated with glycosylated hemoglobin A1C and insulin resistance.”
It has long been known that maternal deprivation at an early age can cause permanent alterations in cognitive and behavioral functioning that can last a lifetime. Research in mice indicates that this is likely a result of oxytocin changes caused by reduced parental bonding. In one study, maternally deprived mice that were treated with oxytocin and found to have improvements in levels of hormones associated with neuron development in the prefrontal cortex. No overall difference in behavior was seen, but there was a trend toward the oxytocin group having better cognitive performance. Other research in mice has found similar results, with intranasal oxytocin improving learning in a non-statistically significant manner in the setting of stress. Source: PubMed
Oxytocin Research and Anxiety
There is a large body of evidence indicating that oxytocin may be related to anxiety and depression. Studies have shown, for instance, the genetic polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor gene can lead to social anxiety disorder and problems with attachment in childhood. In one study of untreated patients with social anxiety, epigenetic changes in the oxytocin receptor were also observed, suggesting a possible compensatory mechanism for pathologically reduced levels of oxytocin. This, in turn, suggests that social anxiety may be, in part, a product of diminished oxytocin signaling.
An extreme case of social anxiety disorder, called borderline personality disorder (BPD), has recently been linked to oxytocin dysregulation as well. BPD is associated with hypervigilance toward threats, extreme mistrust, and altered non-verbal social behavior. Administration of intranasal oxytocin to individuals with BPD has shown modification of these behaviors.
BPD is notoriously difficult to treat and has significant short- and long-term impact on quality of life, so the opportunity to get even a glimmer of understanding of the pathology that leads to this condition can help to set researchers on the road to improving the lives of millions.
Oxytocin Research and Hunger
Research in a condition (Prader-Willi syndrome) marked by uncontrolled appetite has revealed that at least part of the pathology results from increased suppression, above normal, of oxytocin signaling. There is now reason to believe that oxytocin plays a role in the regulation of hunger state and may even play a direct role in feeding behavior.
Oxytocin and Old Muscle
A new finding suggests that oxytocin is a critical component of healthy muscle maintenance and repair and that declines in oxytocin signaling with aging are at least partly responsible for age-related muscle wasting (sarcopenia). The research, carried out at Berkeley, suggests that as blood levels of oxytocin decline with age, so do the numbers of oxytocin receptors on muscle stem cells. Administering oxytocin, however, reverse this effect in just days, allowing muscles to recover much of their potential for healing. This is important because breakdown and repair is the natural process by which muscle is maintained and built. According to Elabd, one of the authors of the research, “repair of muscle in the old mice was at about 80 percent” of what was seen in younger mice after oxytocin was administered. There is hope that oxytocin might offer a meaningful way to intervene in age-related organ degeneration and thus slow dysfunction.
The above literature was researched, edited and organized by Dr. Logan, M.D. Dr. Logan holds a doctorate degree from Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and a B.S. in molecular biology.
Scientific Journal Author
Dr. Gouin, a clinical psychologist, holds a Canada Research Chair in Chronic Stress and Health and leads the Stress, Interpersonal Relationships, and Health Laboratory. His research program investigates the impact of chronic stress on health and well-being. Specifically, they examine risk and resiliency psychosocial processes (rumination, interpersonal relationship quality & sleep quality) impacting the negative psychological and physiological consequences of cumulative and chronic exposure to social and environmental stressors over the life course. In this context, they are particularly interested in dyadic coping, how spouse work together to deal with the stresses that both partners are facing and how spouses influence each other in terms of emotional responses, health behaviors, and physiology. They are also interested in identifying neurophysiological indicators of sensitivity to the social environment and vulnerability to stress, with a particular emphasis on oxytocin and heart rate variability. The overarching goal of these experimental, longitudinal and treatment studies is to develop and optimize psychosocial interventions to improve resilience to chronic stress.
Dr. Gouin is being referenced as one of the leading scientists involved in the research and development of Oxytocin. In no way is this doctor/scientist endorsing or advocating the purchase, sale, or use of this product for any reason. There is no affiliation or relationship, implied or otherwise, between PeptidesforSale.com and this doctor. The purpose of citing the doctor is to acknowledge, recognize, and credit the exhaustive research and development efforts conducted by the scientists studying this peptide. Dr. Gouin is listed in  under the referenced citations.
 J.-P. Gouin et al., “Marital behavior, oxytocin, vasopressin, and wound healing,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 1082–1090, Aug. 2010. [PubMed]
 J. K. Kiecolt-Glaser et al., “Hostile marital interactions, proinflammatory cytokine production, and wound healing,” Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, vol. 62, no. 12, pp. 1377–1384, Dec. 2005. [PubMed]
 A. B. Reiss, D. S. Glass, E. Lam, A. D. Glass, J. De Leon, and L. J. Kasselman, “Oxytocin: Potential to mitigate cardiovascular risk,” Peptides, vol. 117, p. 170089, Jul. 2019. [PubMed]
 P. Wang et al., “Therapeutic Potential of Oxytocin in Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: Mechanisms and Signaling Pathways,” Front. Neurosci., vol. 13, p. 454, 2019. [FIN]
 M. Jankowski, T. L. Broderick, and J. Gutkowska, “Oxytocin and cardioprotection in diabetes and obesity,” BMC Endocr. Disord., vol. 16, no. 1, p. 34, Jun. 2016. [PubMed]
 E. Plante et al., “Oxytocin treatment prevents the cardiomyopathy observed in obese diabetic male db/db mice,” Endocrinology, vol. 156, no. 4, pp. 1416–1428, Apr. 2015.
 E. Kolukcu et al., “The effects of oxytocin on penile tissues in experimental priapism model in rats,” Int. Urol. Nephrol., vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 231–238, Feb. 2019. [PubMed]
 C. Ding, M. K.-S. Leow, and F. Magkos, “Oxytocin in metabolic homeostasis: implications for obesity and diabetes management,” Obes. Rev. Off. J. Int. Assoc. Study Obes., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 22–40, 2019. [PubMed]
 J. Altirriba et al., “Divergent effects of oxytocin treatment of obese diabetic mice on adiposity and diabetes,” Endocrinology, vol. 155, no. 11, pp. 4189–4201, Nov. 2014. [PubMed]
 E. Barengolts, “OXYTOCIN – AN EMERGING TREATMENT FOR OBESITY AND DYSGLYCEMIA: REVIEW OF RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS AND COHORT STUDIES,” Endocr. Pract. Off. J. Am. Coll. Endocrinol. Am. Assoc. Clin. Endocrinol., vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 885–894, Jul. 2019 [PubMed]
 A. Dayi et al., “Dose dependent effects of oxytocin on cognitive defects and anxiety disorders in adult rats following acute infantile maternal deprivation stress,” Biotech. Histochem. Off. Publ. Biol. Stain Comm., pp. 1–12, May 2019. [PubMed]
 A. Dayi et al., “The effects of oxytocin on cognitive defect caused by chronic restraint stress applied to adolescent rats and on hippocampal VEGF and BDNF levels,” Med. Sci. Monit. Int. Med. J. Exp. Clin. Res., vol. 21, pp. 69–75, Jan. 2015. [PMC]
 M. G. Gottschalk and K. Domschke, “Oxytocin and Anxiety Disorders,” Curr. Top. Behav. Neurosci., vol. 35, pp. 467–498, 2018. [Europe PMC]
 C. Ziegler et al., “Oxytocin receptor gene methylation: converging multilevel evidence for a role in social anxiety,” Neuropsychopharmacol. Off. Publ. Am. Coll. Neuropsychopharmacol., vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 1528–1538, May 2015. [PubMed]
 M. Brüne, “On the role of oxytocin in borderline personality disorder,” Br. J. Clin. Psychol., vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 287–304, Sep. 2016. [PubMed]
 D. Atasoy, J. N. Betley, H. H. Su, and S. M. Sternson, “Deconstruction of a neural circuit for hunger,” Nature, vol. 488, no. 7410, pp. 172–177, Aug. 2012. [Nature.com]
 S. Yang, M. R. June 10, 2014July 9, and 2015, “‘Trust hormone’ oxytocin helps old muscle work like new, study finds,” Berkeley News, 30-Nov-2001. [Berkeley]